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Trang chủ > Lớp 11 > Tiếng Anh > Tiếng Anh lớp 11 > Lesson 6.3. Grammar and Writing

Lesson 6.3. Grammar and Writing

Grammar

Tài liệu & bài tập tự luyện

Giới thiệu bài học

Bài giảng Grammar and Writing sẽ giúp các em nắm được những kiến thức cơ bản về:

  • Grammar:

Perfect participles (phân từ hoàn thành)

Perfect gerunds (danh động từ hoàn thành)

  • Writing: Writing an essay about the causes and effects of global warming, and the possible solutions.

Nội dung bài học

Tóm tắt lý thuyết trong bài giảng

  1. Perfect participles (phân từ hoàn thành)
  • The perfect participle is a compound verb form consisting of the auxiliary ‘having’ and the past participle of the verb, e.g having collected, having treated.
  • We can use the perfect participles in a clause of time to talk about an action that comes before another connected one.

Example:

Having collected all necessary information, he started writing his report.

  • We can also use the perfect participle clause to talk about the reason for the action in the main clause.

Example:

Having treated the environment irresponsibly, we now have to suffer the effects of climate change.

Note: We tend not to use participle clauses so much in speech since they can be rather formal.

  1. Perfect gerunds
  • We can use the perfect gerund to emphasize that an action happened in the past, before the past action denoted by the main verb of the sentence. It can be used in the following structures:
  • Verb + (object) + preposition + perfect gerund

VERBS: apologize for, accuse ... of, admire ... for,

            blame ... for, congratulate ... on, criticize ... for,

            punish ... for, praise ... for, thank ... for, suspect ... of

Example:

He apologized for having made us wait so long.

  • We can use the perfect gerund to emphasize that an action happened in the past, before the past action denoted by the main verb of the sentence. It can be used in the following structures:

(2) Verb + perfect gerund

VERBS: deny, admit, forget, mention,

            remember, recall, regret

Example:

She denided having broken the flower vase.

  1. Writing: 

Suggest a writing sample. (đưa ra bài viết mẫu ví dụ cho bài tập SGK)

  1. Ví dụ trong bài giảng                                                                            

Ví dụ 1. Exercise 2, page 9 course book

Match the two parts to make complete sentences.

1. After we identified the causes of global warming,

a. now they have to suffer severe floods.

2. Since they have used up the fossil fuel resources in their country,

b. we decided to sell our car and get a bicycle instead.

3. Because local people have cut down the forests to make way for farming,

c. they have to find some types of alternative energy.

4. After we read the report on how the burning of petrol in cars contributes to climate change,

d. we were determined to reduce our carbon footprint.

5. Because farmers had been informed about the bad effects of chemical fertilizers,

e. we worked out some solutions to reduce its effects.

6. After we talked with the environmentalist,

f. they have to suffer its effects now.

7. Since people have ignored warnings about global warming for more than 20 years,

g. they started using them sparingly on their farms.

8. After we had learnt that humans are responsible for global warming,

h. we changed our attitude to nature

Ví dụ 2. Exercise 2, page 9 course book

Rewrite the sentences, using perfect participles.

Example:

1.e  Having identified the causes of global warming, we worked out some solutions to reduce its effects

Ví dụ 3. Exercise 3, page 9 course book

Combine the sentences, using perfect gerunds.

1. In the Tree Planting Competition, the students in Group 11G planted the most trees in the schoolyard. They were praised for that.

2. Someone had cut down the oldest tree in the park. The police suspected Mike of doing it.

3. He had dumped lots of rubbish onto the beach. He denied it.

4. You had saved the lives of hundreds of wild animals. Thank you for that.

5. They had hunted and killed many wild animals. Later they regretted what they had done.

6. The factory had dumped tons of toxic waste into the river. It was heavily fined for that.

7. Denis had taken an active part in the Green Summer activities. He was rewarded for that.

Ví dụ 4. Exercise 1, page 13 course book

Exercise 1: Which are the causes and effects of global warming?

  1. Heat-related illnesses and death, and spread of infectious diseases
  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels in power plants and motor vehicles
  3. The melting of polar ice caps and rising of sea levels
  4. Deforestation for farmland, wood and paper
  5. People losing homes
  6. Extreme weather patterns such as severe storms, heat waves, floods and droughts
  7. The increasing use of chemical fertilizers on croplands
  8. Widespread extinction of species
  9. Water and food shortages

Ví dụ 5. Exercise 2, page 13 course book

Work in pairs. Discuss and complete the outline, using the ideas form 1. Brainstorm some possible solutions.

  1. Introduction
  2. What global warming is and what causes it
  3. Effects of global warming
  4. Some possible solutions
  5. Conclusion

Ví dụ 6. Exercise 3, page 13 course book

Write your essay (between 160 – 180 words), using the helpful expressions in the box, the outline and your notes in 2.

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